Friday, September 3, 2010

Food –Drink -health-Welfare


1. What’s your country’s drinking habit?
Tea - An Indispensable Drink for the Vietnamese
As you walk along the streets, somewhere near a lamp post, under the shade of a tree, or next to a door, there is a low table with glass pots containing different kinds of candies, roasted ground nuts, and sugar coated cakes. Usually next to these treats, there is a humble tea cozy with a tray of cups. Around the table are several small wooden stools. This is traditionally a complete description of a make-shift tea shop, which is a very popular part of Vietnamese street life.
This drink is considered indispensable to every inhabitant of the city. Tea is drunk every day from the early morning until late at night. People drink tea at their homes, at their work places, and even in tea shops on their way to and from work.
Whenever the Vietnamese feel thirsty, they are likely to look for this drink. It is drunk in both the summer and the winter months. In the winter, a sip of hot tea makes you feel warm inside and better able to cope with the cold temperatures outside.Unlike northerners, whose preference is for a cup of hot steamy tea, people in the south like to drink their tea cold, tending to add ice cubes.
How do we make a good tea cosy?
The owner skillfully lifts the cap of the tea cozy, takes out the tea pot, and then pours the hot tea into a small cup. The owner then hands the cup of steaming tea to the customer

SECTION 2: HEALTHY

1. People do many different things to stay healthy. What do you do for good health? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
  
  cardiovascular [,kɑ:diəʊ'væskjʊlə] (thuộc) tim và mạch máu; tim mạch
• Our health is the only thing we really have in the world. You can take away our money, our house, or our clothes and we can survive. Take away our health and we will die. That is way I eat healthfully, exercise regularly and keep up my social life.
• Eating healthfully is important to maintain one’s health. I try to avoid foods high in fat like French fries or cookie? I also try to limit the amount of animal protein I consume. I never eat more than a few ounces of fish or chicken a day and I rarely eat meat. I eat a lot of vegetables and fresh fruit which are full of fiber and vitamins. It is important to know how to cook these foods so the nutrients are not lost in the cooking process.
• Your muscles must continue to be strong to support your body as it grows older. Exercise helps the bones build density and helps you maintain your posture. A regular exercise program of cardiovascular training and weight training is an important part of keeping your health.
• Friends are an important of one’s health. Studies have shown that people with a wide range of social contacts get fewer colds and have fewer complaints than those who don’t laughing is also an important part of health. I like to laugh with my friends and I always feel better when I am with them than when I am alone.
By eating properly and exercising regularly, I can keep my body at an appropriate weight and can maintain my health. By spending time with my friends, I can keep my mind as well as my body happy. It’s all a part of my recipe for healthful living.

2. Prevention is better than cure. Out of a country's health budget, a large proportion should be diverted from treatment to spending on health education and preventative measures. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement  
   hygiene ['haidʒi:n] (n) vệ sinh
 Wash regularly to ensure personal hygiene -  hãy thường xuyên tắm rửa để bảo đảm vệ sinh cá nhân
In the interest of hygiene, please do not smoke in this shop - Để giữ v s, xin đừng hút thuốc trong cửa hàng này

Of course it goes without saying that preventing is better than cure. That is why in recent years, there has been a growing body of opinion in favour of putting more resources into health education and preventive measures. The argument is that ignorance of for example, basic hygiene or the dangers of an unhealthy diet or lifestyle needs to be combatted by special nationwide publictity campaigns, as well as longer – term health education.
Obviously, there is a strong human argument for catching any medical condition as early as possible. There is also an economic argument for doing so. Statistics demonstrate the cost effectiveness of treating a condition in the early stages, rather than delaying until more expensive and prolonged treatment is necessary. Then there are social or economic costs, perhaps in term of loss of earnings for the family concerned of unemployed benefit paid by the state.
So far so good (up till now everything has gone on track), but the difficulties start when we try to define what the proportion of the budget should be, particularly if the funds will be diverted from treatment. Decisions on exactly how much of the total health budget should be spent in this way are not a matter for the non – specialist, but should be made on the basis of an accepted health service model.
This is the point at which real problems occur – the formulation of the model. How do we accurately measure which health education campaigns are effective in both medical and financial terms? How do we agree about the medical efficacy of various screening a programmes, for example, when the medical establishment itself does not agree? A very rigorous process of evaluation is called for, so that we can make informed decisions.

3. Health: spend large sums of money or medical research or directed towards treating patients.
There is always some controversy over whether it is important to spend large sums of money on medical research or whether more of this money should be directed towards treating patients. Obviously some medical research is essential. Without it, we would have no vaccinations against diseases such as polio, no drugs such as antibiotics and no treatments like x-rays or radiotherapy. Nevertheless, the field of medical research is very competitive and this has financial disadvantages. Take, for example, the current research being conducted on the HIV virus. In this field it is arguable that money is being wasted in that scientists throughout the world are working independently towards the same ultimate goal – to find a cure for AIDS –and with the same hope of becoming famous in the process. Surely it would be more productive and less costly if these scientists joined forces and an international funding.

4. Students can become very tired both emotionally and physically when they are preparing for an examination. How can they look after their health while they are studying?
5. People’s access to good health care should not depend on social factors such as their level of income or social status.
• All people should have access to adequate health care. It is difficult to argue against this proposition. In theory most people would agree with it. But in practice it is more difficult to find countries where it is actually true.
• Health care systems, such as in the United States, where a large proportion of the population cannot afford health insurance, are most undesirable in social terms. People are not cared for properly if they suffer a serious accident or become seriously ill. Yet in the same country the very best in medical services are available to those with the capacity to pay. Are we at the point where we accept that the life of a rich person is worth more than that of a poor person?
• Governments have a responsibility to provide basic health services to all the population. However, governments always have limited resources, and they have a responsibility to use these in an efficient and effective manner. For example, it is difficult to justify governments spending money on expensive medical procedures such as cancer research, if this diverts resources away from the primary objective of equal access to health care for all. The argument then turns on what kind of health care system should be supported by governments.
• Preventive health care is one area where government needs to take the lead. Money spent on preventing disease is more than repaid by money saved in not having to treat that disease at a later time. Public health programs to eradicate diseases such as typhoid and smallpox are a good example where the benefits flow on to all people, regardless of income or social status. More recently, governments sponsored fluoridation programs have played a major part in reducing the incidence of tooth decay, with significant improvement in general health and enormous savings in dental bills for ordinary people.

6. Nowadays doctors can become very rich. Maybe they should not focus on profitable activities such as plastic surgery (
phẫu thuật chỉnh hình) or looking after rich patients and concentrate more on patients health, no matter how rich they are?
7. How important is the patient''s mental attitude towards his/her treatment in determining the effectiveness of the treatment?

A wide range of medical treatments is available today. Patients may wonder which will be the most effective, and whether their own mental attitude to the type of treatment might affect its success. This essay will consider the second of these questions.

Many people vistit their doctor or go to hospital with complete trust in the expert care offered by conventional services. However, some people do not get a satisfactory result. For example, the drugs they are prescribed may have unpleasant side – effects. Their initial positive attitude towards their treatment does them little good.
Similarly, those patients who trustfully choose alternative treatment over traditional medicine may find themselves disillusioned. Less rigorous qualification standard among alternative practitioners may mean that some healers give ineffective or damaging advice. The result, again, is that a patient who entered treatment with confidence leaves that treatment disillusioned.
On the other hand, patients may try a style of treatment with some scepticism. A person used to conventional medicines and drugs may be suspicious of treatments based on diet and lifestyle changes. Yet if they follow such programs, they may in fact notice improvements in their condition, in spite of their scepticism. Equally, a patient opposed to conventional medicine may have an accident and be saved by the effective treatment of conventional emergency services.
In conclusion, it appears that the mental attitude of the patient is not the most significant factor in determining the outcome of the treatment. Patients who enter treatment confidently may leave disillusioned while those who begin treatment sceptical of the results may find themselves surprised with what they have gained. Patients should seek the advantages which each style of care can offer.
8. A number of different medical traditions are now widely known and used: Western medicine (using drugs and surgery), herbal medicine, acupuncture (using needles at certain points of the body), homoeopathy (using minute doses of poisons), and so on.
9. Health: should parents be obliged to immunise their children agaist common childhood diseases? Or do individuals have the right to choose not to immunise their children?
For:
- preventative medicine has proved to be the most effective way of reducing the incidence of fatal childhood diseases. -> lives have been saved and the diseases have been reduced to almost zero.
+ in previous centuries children died from ordinary illnesses such as influenza and tuberculosis and because few people had immunity, the diseases spread easily. Diseases such as dysentery were the result of poor hygiene but these have long been eradicated since the arrival of food sanitation and clean water. Nobody would suggest that we should reverse this good practice now because dysentery has been wiped out.
- Serious disease such as polio and smallpox have also been eradicated through national immunisation programmes. In consequence, children not immusnised are far less at risk in this disease – free society than they would otherwise be. Parents choosing not to immunise are relying on the fact that the diseases have already been eradicated. If the number of parents choosing not to immunise incresed, there would be a similar increase in the risk of the disease returning.
- Immunisation is not an issue like seatbelts which affects only the individual. A decision not to immunise will have widespread repercussion for the whole of society and for this reason, I do not believe that individuals have the right to stand aside. In my opinion immunisation should be obligatory.
Ideas against:
- the issue of whether we should force parents to immunise their children against common diseases is, in my opinion, a social rather than a medical question. Since we are free to choose what we expose our bodies to in the way of food, drink, or religion for that matter, why should we question of medical “treatment” be any different?
- Medical researchers and governments are primarily interested in overall statistics and trends and in money – daving schemes which fail to take into consideration the individual’s concern and rights. While immunisation against disease such as tentanus and whooping cough may be effective, little information is released about the harmful effects mof vaccinations which can sometimes result in stunted growth or even death.
- The body is designed to resist disease and to create its own natural immunity through contact with that disease. So when children are given artificial immunity, we create a vulnerale society which is entirely dependent on immunisastion. In the envent that mass immunisation programmes were to cease, the society as a whole would be more at risk than ever before.
- In addition there is the issue of the rights of the individual. As members of a society, why should we obliged to subject our children to this potentially harmful practice? Some people may also be against immunisation on religious grounds and their needs must also be considered.
- For these reasons I feel strongly that immusnisation programmes should not be obligatory and that the individual should have the right to choose whether or not to participate.

SECTION 3: WELFARE

1. A government''s role is only to provide defence capability and urban infrastructure (roads, water supplies, etc.). All other services (education, health, social security) should be provided by private groups or individuals in the community. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion .
 Governments can only provide a limited range of services for citizens. Certain types of service, however, must be provided by governments, whereas both governments and private groups or individuals can share the responsibility to provide other services.
- A government must provide those services which are essentila to a country. These include defence capabilities and social security. Private enterprise and the profit motive should not form part of these essential services. On the other hand, some services could be provided by either governments or private groups or both. Education and health care are examples of such services. A government must provide at least a basic level of education and health care so all citizens can have access to them. Private enterprise, though, could also provide services in these areas for those who wish to pay for them.
- Urban infrastructure is another area where governments and private groups or individuals can share responsibility. Governments must build and maintain a system of roads, but toll roads can be built and road maintenance carried out by private contractors. Similarly, other infrastructure, such as water or electricity supply, can be operated by private companies.
- To sum up, there are some services such as defence and social security which must be provided by government. Other services, for examples water supply or education, could be provided by both government and private enterprise. Consequently, it is not true to say that a government’s role is only to provide some services while others should be provided by the private sector. In fact, both government and private groups can share in the provision of most services.
2. In Britain, when someone gets old, they often go to live in a home with other old people where there are nurses to look after them. Sometimes the government has to pay for this care.
Who should be responsible for our old people? Give reasons.

- Their children.
- Government.

3. What should a government do for a country to become successful?
- Human resources.
- Consolidate the national solidarity.
- Purify the government leadership.

4. Although abuses of the system are inevitable, social welfare payments are essential to protect the rights citizens have to a guaranteed income in a democratic society.
Social welfare is an essential element of an advanced society. Good systems are always abused, but that does not mean they are faulty. In my opinion, the two main reasons why welfare payments are necessary are as follows:

- first of all, critics forget that there are many forms of welfare besides payments to the unemployed. Their negative opinions harm those who are capable of earning a wage, such as single-parent mothers, the disabled, and the sick. Moreover, the unemployed have the right to an income, too. They are not always at fault for not having a job, and in most cases the tax they have paid in the past entitles them to assistance.
- The second reason is that crime increases when people have no means of support. The desperately poor inevitably turn to crime, which is not only dangerous but costly. Policing the streets is more expensive than providing welfare. A policeman’s wage is four or five times higher than a “dole” payment.
- Certain members of society believe that people should look after themselves. They point out that welfare increases depandency on others and destroys dignity. This may be true, but in the case of the unemployed, the relief payments are usually temporary. It is surely the fault of the government if there are long – term unemployed. Welfare critices also believe that it is the responsibility of a victim’s family to provide financial assistance. However, it is too expensive to provide complete help for a severely disabled person.
- To conclude, it is vital to understand the need for welfare in a modern democratic society. Without welfare payments the poor are destined to become poorer. The first duty of a government is to provide a financial safety net for all disadvantaged persons, and that includes those without work.
5. The welfare state makes people less self-reliant: above question
6. A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health insurance or not

- A much debated issue these days is whether citizens should take out private health insurance or not. The cost of providing free medical care for both the wealthy and the poor is far too great for any government, and most people agree that if you can pay for insurance, you should. In this essay, I will argue that all who can afford it should be insured, but free medical care must be made available for those too poor to do so.
- The most important reason for encouraging people to take out private health insurance is the cost to the government of health care. Free health cover for people who are able to pay for it is a waste of public money. Of course, people will only pay health insurance premiums if they know that they are getting good value for their money. If they get sick, they should pay very little or nothing at all. In addition, the privately insured are entitled to special benefits such as having the choice of their own doctors, and being able to avoid long waiting lists for hospital beds.
- On the other hand, those who really cannot afford to pay private insurance premiums, which are often very high, are still entitled as citizens to the best medical care available - they cannot be expected to pay their own medical bills. However, if they are working, they should still pay a percentage of their wage (say 1 to 2%) as a tax which pays towards the cost of providing ‘free’ medical services.
- In conclusion, most people should privately insure their health, but it is unreasonable to suppose that all citizens can afford it. Therefore, a safety net in the form of a basic free health care system must exist for the very poor and the unemployed. (301 words)

SECTION 4: FOOD

1. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
• The twentieth century has broght with it many advances. With those advances, human lives have changed dramatically. In some ways life is worse, but mostly it is better. Changes in food preparation mehtod, for example, have improved our lives greatly.
• The convenience of preparing food today is amazing. Even stoves have gotten too slow for us. Microwave cooking is much easier. We can press a few buttons and a meak is completely cooked in a short time. People used to spend hours for an oven-cooked meal, and now we can use that time for other, better things. Plus, there are all kinds of portanle, prepackable foods we can buy. Heat them in the office microwave, and lunch at work is quick and easy.
• Food preparation today allows for more variety. With refrigerator and freezers, we can preserve a lot of different foods in our homes. Since technology makes cooking so much faster, people are willing to make several dishes for even a small meal. Parents are more likely to let children be picky, now that they can easily heat them up seome prepackaged macarani and cheese on the side. Needless to say, adults living in the same house may have very different eating habits as well. If they don’t want to cook a lot of different dishes, it’s common now to eat out at restaurants several times a week.
• Healthful eating is also easier than ever now. When people cook, they can use new fat substitues and cooking sprays to cut fat and calories. This reduces the risk of heart disease and high cholesterol. Additionally, we can buy fruits and vegetable fresh, frozen or canned. They are easy to prepare, so many of us eat more of those nutritious items daily. A hundred years ago, you couldn’t imagine the process of taking some frozen fruit and ice from the freezer, adding some low –fat yogurt from a plastic cup and some juice from a can in the refrigerator, and whipping up a low –fat smootine in the blender.
• Our lifestyle is fast, but people still like good food. What new food preparation technology has given us is more choices. Today, we can prepare food that is more convenient, healthier, and of greater variety than ever before in history.

2. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at home. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
• Some people like to eat out at food stands and restaurants, while other like to prepare food at home. Often it depends on the kind of lifestyle people have. Those with very busy jobs outside the house don’t always have time to cook. They like the convenience of eating out. Overall, though, it is cheaper and healthier to eat at home.
• While eating in restaurant is fast, the money you spend can add up. When I have dinner at restaurant with a friedn, the bill is usually over twenty dollars. I can buy a lot of groceries with that much money. Even lunch at a fast – food stand usually costs five or six dollarss for one person. That’s enough to feed the whole family at home.
• Eating at home is better for you, too. Meals at restaurants are often high in fat and calories, and they serve big plates of food – much more food than you need to eat at one meal. If you cook food at home, you have more control over the ingredients. You can use margarine instead of butter on your potatoes, or not put so much cheese on the top of your pizza. At home, you can control your portion size. You can serve yourself as little as you want. In a restaurant, you may eat a full plate of food “because you paid for it”.
• It is true that eating out is convenient. You don’t have to shop, to cook, to clean up. But real home cooking doesn’t have to take up a lot of time. Ther are lots of simple meals that don’t take long to make. In fact, they’re faster than eating out, especially if you think of the time you spend driving to a restaurant, parking, waiting for a table, waiting for service, driving home.
• Both eating at restaurants and cooking at home can be satisfying. Both can taste good and be enjoyed with family and friends. I prefer cooking at home because of the money and health issues, but people will make the choice that fits their lifestyle best.
Interview
1. Describe your favourite restaurant.
• Moca Restaurant - location
• The food:
• The service:
• The decoration:
• The price:
• The feature:
• The strength:
• Why suitable for foreigner:
2. Traditional food:
• Which Vietnamese traditional dish do you particularly like?
- Sticky rice cakes are a Vietnamese traditional dish that must be part of Tet meals. As a matter of fact, every Vietnamese family must have sticky rice cakes among the offerings placed on the altar to their ancestors.
• Do you know how to make the dish?
- Banh chung is made of glutinous rice, pork meat, and green beans paste wrapped in a square of bamboo leaves, giving the rice a green colour after boiling.
- Making sticky rice cakes is a very meticulous job. To obtain the best cakes, rice has to soak in water for an entire day. The pork meat must include skin and fat, the green beans must be of the same size, and the bamboo leaves must be fresh.
- Squaring off and tying cakes with bamboo strings requires skilful hands.
- Sticky rice cakes are available at any time of the year, although one is sure to enjoy them with relatives and friends during Tet. During Tet, rice cakes are served with gio lua and hanh muoi– lean meat pie and salted sour onions.
3 Are Vietnamese people’s eating habits changing? Can you give an example of such changes.
- Increasing number of people come to restaurant
- Improved standard and More dishes than before due to upgraded living standard.
- Rarely the whole family can gather due to business.
4. Do you think people in your country prefer eating traditional food to international one? Why? Why not?
- Traditional one.
- not many opportunities for trying international delicacies.
5. Speculate on a world in which people ate all the same kinds of food.
- not very favourable.
- Prefer a variety of delicacies.
- One part of each country’s culture –one part of the country.
6. How is your country’s traditional culture reflected in the eating habit of the people?
- Agriculture culture reflected in dishes.
- Close –knit relationship between family members.
- Traditional role of women.

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